[Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Shi, Linchun; Han, Jianping; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Shilin; Li, Ying; Jia, Xiaocheng; Song, Jingyuan; Gao, Ting; Lin, Yulin; Li, Xiwen; Ma, Xinye] Peking Union Med Coll, Chinese Acad Med Sci, Inst Med Plant Dev, Beijing 100021, Peoples R China.;[Leon, Christine] Royal Bot Gardens, Richmond TW9 3AB, Surrey, England.;[Luo, Kun] Hubei Univ Chinese Med, Dept Pharm, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.;[Liu, Chang] Univ Hong Kong, Li Ka Shing Fac Med, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
[Chen, Shilin] Peking Union Med Coll, Chinese Acad Med Sci, Inst Med Plant Dev, Beijing 100021, Peoples R China.
BACKGROUND: The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due to the low identification rate, and the search is not over. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compared seven candidate DNA barcodes (psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL, rpoC1, ycf5, ITS2, and ITS) from medicinal plant species. Our ranking criteria included PCR amplification efficiency, differential intra- and inter-specific divergences, and the DNA barcoding gap. Our data suggest that the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA represents the most suitable region for DNA barcoding applications. Furthermore, we tested the discrimination ability of ITS2 in more than 6600 plant samples belonging to 4800 species from 753 distinct genera and found that the rate of successful identification with the ITS2 was 92.7% at the species level. CONCLUSIONS: The ITS2 region can be potentially used as a standard DNA barcode to identify medicinal plants and their closely related species. We also propose that ITS2 can serve as a novel universal barcode for the identification of a broader range of plant taxa.
[Luo, Kun; Xiao, Peigen; Li, Ying; Song, Jingyuan; Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Liu, Chang; Chen, Shilin] Chinese Acad Med Sci, Peking Union Med Coll, Inst Med Plant Dev, Beijing 100037, Peoples R China.;[Luo, Kun] Hubei Univ Chinese Med, Coll Pharm, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.;[Zhu, Yingjie] SW Jiaotong Univ, Sch Biosci & Engn, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China.;[Xu, Hongxi] Hong Kong Jockey Club Inst Chinese Med, Chinese Med Lab, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
[Yao, Hui] Chinese Acad Med Sci, Peking Union Med Coll, Inst Med Plant Dev, Beijing 100037, Peoples R China.
BACKGROUND: The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is regarded as one of the candidate DNA barcodes because it possesses a number of valuable characteristics, such as the availability of conserved regions for designing universal primers, the ease of its amplification, and sufficient variability to distinguish even closely related species. However, a general analysis of its ability to discriminate species in a comprehensive sample set is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, 50,790 plant and 12,221 animal ITS2 sequences downloaded from GenBank were evaluated according to sequence length, GC content, intra- and inter-specific divergence, and efficiency of identification. The results show that the inter-specific divergence of congeneric species in plants and animals was greater than its corresponding intra-specific variations. The success rates for using the ITS2 region to identify dicotyledons, monocotyledons, gymnosperms, ferns, mosses, and animals were 76.1%, 74.2%, 67.1%, 88.1%, 77.4%, and 91.7% at the species level, respectively. The ITS2 region unveiled a different ability to identify closely related species within different families and genera. The secondary structure of the ITS2 region could provide useful information for species identification and could be considered as a molecular morphological characteristic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As one of the most popular phylogenetic markers for eukaryota, we propose that the ITS2 locus should be used as a universal DNA barcode for identifying plant species and as a complementary locus for CO1 to identify animal species. We have also developed a web application to facilitate ITS2-based cross-kingdom species identification (http://its2-plantidit.dnsalias.org).
European urology,2018年73(3):385-391 ISSN：0302-2838
[Qi, Lin] Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital of Centra South University, Changsha, China;[Li, Jiongming] Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China;[Liao, Yongbin] Department of Urology, Jiangmen Hospital of Zhongshan University, Jiangmen, China;[Xu, Xun] Department of Urology, Nanhai Hospital of Nanfang Medical University;[Liu, Xiankui] Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Shenyang, China
[Xu, Hua; Chen, Zhiqiang] Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Tongji Hosp, Tongji Med Coll, Dept Urol, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, Peoples R China.;Hubei Institute of Urology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:
BACKGROUND: Recent large high-quality trials have questioned the clinical effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy using tamsulosin for ureteral stones. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for distal ureteral stones compared with placebo. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3296 patients with distal ureteral stones, across 30 centers, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into tamsulosin (0.4mg) or placebo groups for 4 wk. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary end point of analysis was the overall stone expulsion rate, defined as stone expulsion, confirmed by negative findings on computed tomography, over a 28-d surveillance period. Secondary end points included time to stone expulsion, use of analgesics, and incidence of adverse events. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among 3450 patients randomized between September 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013, 3296 (96%) were included in the primary analysis. Tamsulosin benefits from a higher stone expulsion rate than the placebo (86% vs 79%; p<0.001) for distal ureteral stones. Subgroup analysis identified a specific benefit of tamsulosin for the treatment of large distal ureteral stones (>5mm). Considering the secondary end points, tamsulosin-treated patients reported a shorter time to expulsion (p<0.001), required lower use of analgesics compared with placebo (p<0.001), and significantly relieved renal colic (p<0.001). No differences in the incidence of adverse events were identified between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tamsulosin use benefits distal ureteral stones in facilitating stone passage and relieving renal colic. Subgroup analyses find that tamsulosin provides a superior expulsion rate for stones >5mm, but no effect for stones </=5mm. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we looked at the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for the treatment of distal ureteral stones. We find that tamsulosin significantly facilitates the passage of distal ureteral stones and relieves renal colic.